|Chess board layout.|
1. Control the center of the board -
Control of the central squares allows pieces to be moved to any part of the board relatively easily, and can also have a cramping effect on the opponent. The classical view is that central control is best effected by placing pawns there, ideally establishing pawns on d4 and e4 (or d5 and e5 for Black). You can also control the center from a distance with pieces, breaking down one's opponent's center, and take over the center later in the game.
2. Piece development -
Piece development aims to mobilize your pieces on useful squares where they will have impact on the game. Knights are usually developed to f3, c3, f6 and c6 (or sometimes e2, d2, e7 or d7), and both player's King and Queen pawns are moved so the bishops can be developed. Rapid mobilization is the key. As you mobilize your pieces, you should ensure that they are working harmoniously towards the control of key squares.
3. Provide defense for your own pieces -
A good pawn formation is usually vital in chess your chess opening, you should avoid isolated, undefended and doubled up pawns (one pawn in front the other). If one of your pieces is being threatened by an opponents, you should provide it with a defense that can capture your opponents attacking piece.
4. Attempt to capture your opponents pawns and pieces to get an early advantage -
You need to exploit your opponents weaknesses, but chances are most decent Chess players aren't going to move a piece to a position in which it can be taken by you with no consequences. Always analyze for traps, try to set up your opponent with a series of moves in which you come out on top.
5. Provide protection of your King -
The king's original position is somewhat exposed to the middle of the board and moves should be made to reduce his vulnerability. It is therefore common for both players either to castle in the opening or to otherwise bring the king to the side of the board via artificial castling (less common, unless forced to).